Simple Supported Beam Formulas with Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams:


Notations relative to “Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams”

L = Span length of the bending member, ft.
l = Span length of the bending member, in.
I = Moment of inertia, in4
E = Modulus of elasticity, psi.
M = Maximum bending moment, in.-lbs.
V = Shear force, lbs.
R = Reaction load at bending point, lbs.
P = Total concentrated load, lbs.
w = Load per unit length, lbs./in.
W = Total uniform load, lbs.
x = Horizontal distance from reaction to point on bead, in.
∆ = Deflection or deformation, in.

1.   Equally Distributed Load 

Simple Beam Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

2.   Equally Load Partially Distributed

Simple Beam Uniform Load Partially Distributed  3.    Equal Load Partially Distributed at One End

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

 4.   Equal Load Partially Distributed at Each End

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

  5.   Load Increasing Equally at One End

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

6.   Load Increasing Regular to Center 

Shear Force and Bending Moment

7.    Point Load at Center

Shear Force and Bending Moment

8.    Point Load at any Point

Shear and Moment Diagrams

9.       Two Equal Symmetrically Placed Point Load

Shear Force Diagrams

10.       Two Equal Point Load Unsymmetrical Placed

Bending Moment Diagrams

11.       Two Unequal Point Load Unsymmetrical Placed

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

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Stresses of Bending:


At the point when a wipe is put crosswise over two backings and tenderly squeezed downwards between the backings, the pores at the best will close, demonstrating pressure, and the pores at the base will open more extensive, showing strain. Correspondingly, a light emission versatile material, for example, wood or steel, will deliver an adjustment fit as a fiddle when outside burdens are following up on it.

The minute caused by the outer burdens following up on the shaft will be opposed by the snapshot of this inner couple. Accordingly:
Beam Design

Beam Design
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Beam Design

Beam Design

Beam Design

Beam Design

Beam Design
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Beam Design

Beam Design
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Beam Design

Beam Design

Beams Design Basic Formulas



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Moulds And Shuttering:


Moulds And Shuttering

As concrete is deposited in a semi-liquid or plastic state on the site of the work to be executed, some means must be provided by which it can be formed and maintained in place until the material has finally set or hardened in the required shape.

The means necessary for this purpose vary widely, according to circumstances. For example, if it is
desired merely to form a foundation bed in the ground, the concrete can be filled and rammed into an excavation the bottom and sides of which will suffice to retain the material, and to constitute the most simple form of mould. Again, where concrete has to be spread in the form of a slab upon the ground, or deposited in a mass above ground level, the surface of the earth can be utilized to support the concrete, but timber or metal shuttering, or some form of curb, must be provided along the edges so as to confine the material within required limits. Where the concrete has to be employed in more complex forms, such as columns, arches, beams, girders, trusses, framed structures and complete buildings, bridges, reservoirs or ships, the temporary falseworks or moulds for the reception and support of the concrete, until such time as it has set hard enough to carry its own weight, are of somewhat elaborate character according to the nature of the work to be executed. This point is exemplified by Fig. 16, which shows part of the extensive timber work erected for the construction of
a long range of two-storey dock sheds at Manchester.

Moulds And Shuttering





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Beam Deflection Formula: 

This section discusses to Beam Deflection Formula that requires splitting the structure into a cantilever beam and a simply supported beam.
Beam Deflection Formula
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Beam Deflection Formula
Beam Deflection Formula
Beam Deflection Formula

Beam Deflection Formula




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Calculate Live Loads for Building Design:

Load Calculate


Load Calculations
According to ASCE 7:
Minimum Uniformly distributed Live Loads for Building Design:
40 PSF for Residential dwellings, appartments, hotel rooms, school classrooms
50 PSF for Offices
60 PSF for Auditoriums with fixed seats
73 – 100 PSF for Retail Stores
(For others see ASCE 7)

For influence area, AI > 400 Sq.ft., the live load may be reduced according to the live load reduction equation:

Calculate Live Loads for Building Design


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Following are the different types of cement used in construction works:






1. Quick Hardening Cement: 

Quick solidifying bond is fundamentally the same as standard portland concrete (OPC). It contains higher c3s content and better pounding. Subsequently it gives more noteworthy quality advancement at a beginning period than OPC. The quality of this bond at 3 years old days is practically same as the 7 days quality of OPC with a similar water-concrete proportion. 

The fundamental preferred standpoint of utilizing fast solidifying bond is that the formwork can be expelled before and reused in different ranges which spare the cost of formwork. This bond can be utilized as a part of pre-assembled solid development, street works, and so forth.   Construction

2. Low Heat Cement:                                                           CivilEngineerUs

Low warmth bond is produced by expanding the extent of C2S and by diminishing the C3S and C3A content. This concrete is less responsive and its underlying setting time is more noteworthy than OPC. This bond is for the most part utilized as a part of mass solid development. 

3. Sulfate Resisting Cement:                                                Construction

Sulfate opposing bond is made by diminishing C3A and C4AF content. Concrete with such piece has superb protection from sulfate assault. This sort of bond is utilized as a part of the development of establishment in soil where subsoil contains high extents of sulfate . 

4. White Cement: 

White concrete is a kind of customary Portland Cement which is unadulterated white in shading and has for all intents and purposes an indistinguishable organization and same quality from OPC. To get the white shading the iron oxide content is extensively diminished. The crude materials utilized as a part of this bond are limestone and china mud. 

cement used for constructionThis bond, because of its white shading, is principally utilized for inside and outside improving work like outer renderings of structures, confronting chunks, floor materials, elaborate solid items, ways of greenhouses, swimming pools and so forth. 

5. Portland Pozzolana Cement: 

Portland pozzolana concrete is delivered either by crushing together, portland bond clinkers and pozzolana with the expansion of gypsum or calcium sulfate or by personally and consistently mixing portland bond and fine pozzolana. 

It produces bring down warmth of hydration and has more prominent protection from assault of substance organizations than OPC. Concrete made with PPC is along these lines considered especially appropriate for development in ocean water, pressure driven works and for mass solid works. 

6. Hydrophobic Cement: 

Hydrophobic bond is made by adding water repellant chemicals to normal portland concrete during the time spent granulating. Subsequently the concrete put away does not ruined notwithstanding amid storm. This concrete is asserted to stay unaffected when transported amid downpours too. Hydrophobic bond is for the most part utilized for the development of water structures such dams, water tanks, spillways, water holding structures and so forth. 

7. Hued Cement: 

This Cement is delivered by including 5-10% mineral shades with portland bond amid the season of pounding. Because of the different shading mixes this concrete is essentially utilized for inside and outside enlivening works. 

8. Waterproof Portland Cement:                                          Construction

Waterproof concrete is set up by blending with customary or quick solidifying bond, a little level of some metal stearates (Ca, Al, and so on) at the season of crushing. This bond is utilized for the development of water-holding structure like tanks, stores, holding dividers, swimming pools, dams, spans, docks and so forth. 

9. Portland Blast Furnace Cement:                                     Construction

For this situation, the typical concrete clinkers are blended with up to 65% of the impact heater slag for the last pounding. This kind of bond can be utilized with advantage in mass solid work, for example, dams, establishments, and projections of scaffolds, holding dividers , development in ocean water. 

10. Air Entraining Cement:                                                  Construction

It is delivered via air entraining specialists, for example, saps, pastes, sodium salts of sulfate with standard portland bond. 

11. High Alumina Cement: 

High alumina bond (HAC) is an exceptional concrete, produced by blending of bauxite ( aluminum mineral) and lime at a specific temperature. This bond is otherwise called calcium aluminum concrete (CAC). The compressive quality of this concrete is high and more workable than conventional portland bond. 

12. Broad Cement: 

The concrete which does not recoil amid and after the season of solidifying however extends marginally with time is called sweeping bond. This sort of bond is predominantly utilized for grouting stay jolts and prestressed solid channels.

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